by Jonathan M. Stern
Turns are performed by banking the airplane. Without Flight Simulator's auto-coordination, rudder pressure to overcome adverse aileron yaw also would be necessary. Due to the aerodynamic design of most airplanes, the stability characteristics are such that an airplane tends to return to wings level from a shallow turn (20° bank or less), maintain the angle of bank in a medium turn (21° to 45°), and steepen the bank from a steep turn (more than 45° bank).
For aerodynamic reasons previously explained, lift normally used to counter weight is translated in a turn to a horizontal lift component. For this reason, apply back pressure to the control yoke in a turn, the amount of back pressure being a function of the steepness of the bank (see Figure 4.3).
Figure 4.3. To maintain altitude in a turn, the nose must be raised.
The back pressure must be increased as the bank angle increases and decreased as the bank angle decreases.
To make a turn, rotate the control yoke in the direction of the desired turn. As the bank increases, apply gentle back pressure to maintain altitude. This requires a greater degree of nose-high attitude than that required for level flight. As the desired bank angle is reached, the control yoke is—and thus the ailerons are—neutralized.
With the exception of the stability-related characteristics, the airplane remains in the turn until opposite aileron is applied to level the wings.
Because of the high load factors that accompany steep turns, there is a tendency for the nose to drop and altitude to be lost. The procedure for correcting this is to reduce the bank angle and then to apply back pressure on the control yoke. If the back pressure is applied while the bank is steep, the turn is tightened and a spiral will result (see Figure 4.4).
Figure 4.4. When back pressure is applied before reducing bank angle in a steep turn, the turn tightens.
Because the airplane continues in the turn until the wings are level, the roll out of the turn must be initiated before the desired heading is reached.
For additional instruction and practice on flying straight and level and making turns and climbs, select "Lesson 3—Straight and Level Flight," "Lesson 4—Turns," and "Lesson 5—Climbs" from the Options/Flight Instruction menu (Basic Category).