by Fred J. Calfior and Douglas W. Miller
"Have you got a handle on this left downwind departure drill? Good! Add some power to get on the runway and at the same time, check your flaps to make sure they're in place at 10 degrees, fuel is okay, trim set, oil temperature and pressure are in the green - nothing seems to be stopping us. Let'er rip 13MIKE!"
1) Record TIME____________________________
2) Release brakes and taxi onto runway
3) Advance power to "FULL"
4) Maintain centerline of runway
5) At 50 knots airspeed lift nose wheel off runway
6) At 70 knots ease back on the yoke to establish a 10 degree pitch up attitude
7) Maintain a climb AIRSPEED of 80 knots
8) Raise Gear when there is no more runway to land on
9) At "500" feet above the ground raise the FLAPS to "0"
** 10) At "700" feet above the ground, begin a LEFT "90" degree CROSSWIND turn; What altitude is that?____________ (20 pts)
11) With wings level, check your airspace and begin another LEFT "90" degree turn to the LEFT DOWNWIND
** 12) Your heading for the CROSSWIND leg is____________ (15 pts) Your heading for the DOWNWIND leg is________________ (15 pts)
"You know what's an easy as pie rule of thumb to remember when it comes to rolling out from any turn? It's not in the books this way, but simply lead all your roll outs by 10 degrees before your target heading. There are more specific considerations, but for now, that'll make all your concentration brain waves workfull time!"
13) Reduce power to about "2300" RPM at "1000" feet above the ground (AGL)
"Well, lookie, lookie! I keep on saying that you should have about an "800" feet per minute climb rate on your Vertical Speed Indicator (VSI) and you sure do, don't you?!! Now pay attention as you get abeam the midfield of Aurora because then comes the next step. We will do what's standard, and that is depart out of the airport environment on a 45 degree Tm out of here!' heading!"
1) Hold the downwind course until midfield of Runway 18-36
** 2) Record the heading displayed on your DG_______(20 pts)
Record the altitude you're passing_____________(15 pts)
** 3) At midfield, turn RIGHT "45" degrees, maintaining the climb
What will that heading be?___________________(15 pts)
"You know, you could do 30 degree bank turns, but what's the rush? Simply make all your turns STANDARD RATE. You make a STANDARD RATE turn by keeping the wings on the little airplane, displayed on the TURN COORDINATOR, aligned with the "R" indicator. This way, you're right from the start practicing on smooth, minor movements, which will definitely help in the instrument environment. I remember once, flying a hop (flight in military terms) in the goo (clouds), when my brain (very small part of my head!) had me flying upside down (not good!) all the way through! Believe me, all corrections I made were anything but abrupt, and rightly so!!"
1) Begin to level off when the altimeter reads "2900" feet
2) Maintain "3000" feet
3) Reduce power to about "2250"  RPM
4) When settled, press "P" to pause the simulation
** 5) Record your:
NAV 1 DME DIST_____________________(25 pts)
6) Press "P" to continue the simulation
Course change #1:
"Can you see that airport in front of us or around in front? That just happens to be right about where your Number 1 VOR needle should center. So you see, when you're smart in this kind of environment, you have visual landmarks that you're relying on, and as a backup, use that VOR of yours. Why not? They are all tools to help you navigate from one place to another. If one breaks down, or you get confused, you have a map that still tells you what to do. That's called preparation!!!"
1) Watch your NAV I CDI, and when the needle is centered, start your LEFT turn to a heading of "210"
2) After you have rolled out, press "P" to pause the simulation
** 3) Record your:
NAV I DME DIST_______________________(25 pts)
NAV 2 DME DIST_______________________(20 pts)
4) Press "P" to continue the simulation
5) Set power to about "2300"  RPM and climb to "4500"ft
6) When level at "4500" feet, reduce power back to about "2250"  RPM and set NAV 1 OBS to "256"
"Ah, I just wanted to see you do some climbing maneuvers while you were cruising en route to Bloomington-Normal. Plus you can see a bit more up here to help you get stabilized on exactly where you are, or where you want to be! But most importantly, it's so that you can be at your necessary VFR cruising altitude. For your westerly heading, the rule is even thousand plus 500 feet."
Course change #2:
1) Watch your NAV 2 CDI, and when the needle is one half dot RIGHT of center, start your LEFT turn to a heading of "168"
"Again, see how this equates to the city of Ottawa down there? I think you're beginning to see that when planning for these VFR (visual flight rules) flights, that there are almost always a wealth of ground points to draw from. There's the Illinois River big as life down there, huh??!!! Are you seeing the lesson gained from this specific flight? You sure are flying it well, so I think you must be!"
2) As a cross check, the NAV 1 CDI needle should almost be centered
3) Track inbound on the "348" radial ("168" heading in the upper window)
4) Tune NAV 1 to "108.2" (BMI), and set "210" in the upper window
5) Press "P" to pause the simulation
** 6) Record your:
NAV 1 DME DIST__________________________(25 pts)
NAV 2 DME DIST__________________________(25 pts)
7) Press "P" to continue the simulation
8) Reduce power to about "2100"  RPM and descend at "400" feet per minute to "3500" feet
9) When level, return power to about "2250"  RPM
"What? Me overload you?? Impossible! You're so far ahead of this airplane that I've had to personally go full power to get you back in the cockpit!!! But do remember, that to track inbound on a VOR radial, just keep the CDI needle centered by making minor heading changes to compensate for winds. What I mean by minor is that if you constantly drift to the right, the needle will be to the left. So chase the needle and make a left 20 degree correction. When the needle centers, take out half of that correction and then keep working it in that manner."
Course change #3:
1) Watch your NAV 2 DME DIST, as it reaches "0.5", turn RIGHT to a heading of "182"
2) Cross check to see that the NAV 1 CDI needle should almost be centered
"Ah! Can you almost smell how close we are to our destination? If you look at your VFR sectional, we are now starting to fly on a low altitude airway called Victor 313 or V313. They are, so to speak, highways in the sky, mostly for instrument pilots. Well, be thinking about landing because it's not too far now, so press on!"
3) Set NAV 2 OBS to "182" in the upper window
4) Track outbound on the "182" radial that your NAV 2 OBI is displaying
5) Set NAV 1 OBS to "240" in the upper window
"Look how well you're thinking ahead! That setting of 240 is in preparation for the 45 degree entry into Bloomington-Normal. As a matter of fact, you are so well ahead of the game, let's get the ATIS information on 135.35 to see which runway is active. I believe we've guessed it to be runway 11, right?"
6) Tune COM to "135.35" (Bloomington-Normal ATIS)
"BLOOMINGTON-NORMAL AIRPORT, INFORMATION NOVEMBER, 1730 ZULU WEATHER, SKY CLEAR, VISIBILITY 40. TEMPERATURE 91, WIND 090 AT 10. ALTIMETER 29.95. LANDING AND DEPARTING RUNWAY 11. ADVISE ON INITIAL CONTACT YOU HAVE INFORMATION NOVEMBER."
"Well, how do you like that? Did we get Bingo on that one, or did we get Bingo on that one? We're setting this up perfectly. Watch that Number I needle now - pretty soon, we'll have that field in sight. I can see it in my mind's eye. But wait on calling tower until we get heading inbound, because there is no rush!"
7) Watch your NAV 1 CDI, and when the needle is one half dot LEFT of center, start a RIGHT turn to a heading of "240"
8) Start to roll out when you see "232" in the DG window
9) Maintain a heading of "240"
"If winds are the same as when we departed, then we have a strong crosswind with a little tailwind! Watch for drift on the approach. Look for the airport! You can just barely see its outline!"
1) The airfield should now be in front of you plainly in sight.
"Now's as good a time as any to call Tower on 124.6, give our position and intentions (you do know them, don't you?), get down to traffic pattern altitude, and set up our cockpit for landing. Now remember, if I don't get scared, I'll give you my ‘13MIKE’ hat! Take it away, El Pilot!"
2) Tune COM on "124.6" (Bloomington-Normal Tower)
"BLOOMINGTON-NORMAL TOWER, THIS IS CESSNA 13MIKE, ABOUT EIGHT MILES NORTHEAST OF THE FIELD, INBOUND ON A LEFT 45 FOR LANDING WITH NOVEMBER."
"13MIKE, CONTINUE INBOUND. REPORT WHEN AT FIVE MILES."
"13MIKE WILL REPORT AT FIVE."
3) Set ALTIMETER, set DG, and check FUEL
4) Set the DME to "NAV 1"
5) When established inbound, reduce power to about "1800"  RPM, descend and maintain "1900" feet and plan to arrive at altitude when the NAV 1 DME DIST equals "5.0"
"BLOOMINGTON-NORMAL TOWER, 13MIKE IS AT FIVE MILES ON THE 45."
"13MIKE, REPORT WHEN ABEAM THE TOWER."
Figure 6.2. 45 degree entry for Left Downwind runway 11
** 1) When abeam a point on the runway between the departure end of runway 11 and midfield, begin a RIGHT turn to the DOWNWIND leg. Heading_________________(20 pts)
"BLOOMINGTON-NORMAL TOWER, 13MIKE IS LEFT DOWNWIND ABEAM THE TOWER FOR LANDING."
"13MIKE, YOU'RE CLEARED TO LAND ON RUNWAY 11. YOUR TRAFFIC IS JUST NOW TURNING FROM LEFT BASE TO FINAL."
"13MIKE IS LOOKING FOR TRAFFIC."
2) CARB HEAT "ON" and set GEAR "DOWN"
"Now don't forget to keep looking for that traffic. Don't get so busy in the cockpit that you forget your number one responsibility. Most collisions happen right here in the traffic pattern, and we do not want to contribute to that statistic! Do you see him? I do! Keep looking, you know about where he is - that's right! All right, tell tower you have him."
"BLOOMINGTON-NORMAL TOWER, 13MIKE HAS TRAFFIC."
"13MIKE, CONTINUE TO LANDING."
3) Reduce power to about "1500"  RPM
4) When you have slowed to 90 knots, set FLAPS to first notch
5) When abeam the approach end of runway 11, begin a descent and maintain 400 ft per minute
"Okay! Now what's the standard law of Calfior while you're in the landing pattern? Repeat after me! Adjust height with power, and airspeed with pitch. Hey, not bad! Keep it coming down. See if you can make this landing a stabilized ride down to the touchdown area with very little adjustment in nose or power."
** 6) When the end of the runway is at your 5 o'clock position, turn LEFT "90" degrees to establish your BASE leg of the approach. Heading_______________(20 pts)
7) Set FLAPS to second notch (20 degrees)
8) Press "P" to pause the simulator
** 9) Record your:
CARB HEAT_____________________________(10 pts)
10) Press "P" to continue the simulation
Figure 6.3. Left BASE preparing to turn FINAL for runway 11.
11) When runway 11 is at your 10 o'clock position, start a "90" degree LEFT turn to your FINAL leg of the approach
"You're doing fine! I'm not scared, so your hat is still available! But be aggressive in lining up with runway 11. Don't just watch the slide to the side - make slight heading adjustments to compensate for winds, overshoots, or undershoots."
12) When established on the FINAL leg, set FLAPS to third notch (30 degrees). Airspeed should be 70 knots
"I think you might just do it! You haven't changed anything other than flaps, from abeam your point of intended landing right to this position! It's been perfectly right down the slide in a 180 degree oblong turn. Sure is pretty when you see it! Here! Wear the hat for now, just in case you screw up and I have to take it back!!!!!!"
13) When the altimeter displays "1100" feet, press "P" to pause the simulation
** 14) Record your:
15) Press "P" to continue the simulation
16) When you are 10 to 20 feet off the runway, reduce power to about "1000" RPM, and start to slowly pitch the nose of the aircraft up to slow your descent and establish a touchdown attitude
"You're good on airspeed - 60 knots is solid here! This is great! We're still sliding down the final tube, and I think you've got it with hardly any adjustments!"
17) When you are five feet off the runway, hold the nose of the aircraft up and allow the airspeed to SLOWLY bleed off. Your aircraft will settle onto the runway while you follow the centerline
"As smooth as you were from abeam to this landing attitude, be that smooth with your power and nose. Put on your ballet slippers! You know what I mean?"
18) After touchdown, reduce power to 600 RPM
19) Apply the brakes
20) Turn left and taxi off the active runway
21) When aircraft has stopped, set CARB HEAT to "OFF"
22) Set FLAPS to "0"
"Take a picture of that approach in your mind, and carry it with you all the days of your career! That was an exquisitely executed erudition of an enormously easy appearing end-around done landing factually and effectively!!! Keep the hat!!! Switch to Ground Control on 125.0, close our flight plan and taxi for a pop, before we continue on to Kankakee Airport."
23) Tune COM to "125.0" (Bloomington-Normal Ground)
"BLOOMINGTON-NORMAL GROUND, CESSNA 13MIKE IS DOWN AND CLEAR OF RUNWAY 11 FOR TAXI TO THE RAMP. I'D ALSO LIKE TO CLOSE MY VFR FLIGHT PLAN AT THIS TIME."
"13MIKE, YOU ARE CLEARED TO THE RAMP. YOUR FLIGHT PLAN IS CLOSED."
** 24) Record the TIME___________________________(5 pts)
TOTAL POINTS POSSIBLE FOR THIS FLIGHT IS 700