by Fred J. Calfior and Douglas W. Miller
"Okay, you tell me what we normally check as we start moving out on the centerline of the runway. Yup, flaps are at 10. Well, we haven't got full fuel, so don't use that phrase as a habit, but I'd say about 60 gallons, wouldn't you? Yup, trimmed for takeoff. Upper corner there - that's right! Oil temperature and pressure are in the green, meaning they're normal. Runway sure looks pretty at night with all those blue taxi lights all around! Let's go afterburners!!!!"
1) Record TIME_______________________________
2) Release brakes and taxi onto runway
3) Advance power to "FULL" and maintain centerline of runway
4) At 50 knots airspeed lift nose wheel off runway
5) At 70 knots ease back on the yoke to establish a 10 degree pitch up attitude
6) Maintain a climb AIRSPEED of 80 knots
7) Raise GEAR when there is no more runway to land on
8) At "500" feet above the ground raise the FLAPS to "0"
9) At "800" feet above the ground, turn RIGHT "90" degrees to enter the RIGHT CROSSWIND leg of the departure
10) When wings are level, begin your RIGHT "90" degree turn to the RIGHT DOWNWIND leg of the departure
Figure 10.2. Standard Right Downwind departure.
** "You should see the runway out the right window. Remember to tell tower that you're passing through 1100 feet - they just want to make sure you're clear of the pattern altitude. You should be flying parallel to the runway heading, so what heading is that?" __________ (20 pts)
"SAN JOSE TOWER, 13MIKE IS PASSING 1100 FEET AT THIS TIME."
11) Reduce power to about "2300" RPM at "1000" feet above the ground (AGL)
12) When you are abeam the midpoint of the runway, turn LEFT "45" degrees to depart the pattern. See Figure 10.2.
"Nice job! Radio calls were sharply stated, you departed on that 45 very cleanly, and good control of that 600 feet per minute climb rate on your Vertical Speed Indicator (VSI). Now organize yourself in the cockpit with your sectional and take us to Oakland!"
13) Press "P" to pause the simulation
** 14) Record your:
NAV 1 DME DIST________________________ (25 pts)
ALTITUDE______________________________ (20 pts)
HEADING_______________________________ (20 pts)
AIRSPEED______________________________ (15 pts)
VSI____________________________________ (15 pts)
GEAR__________________________________ (10 pts)
FLAPS_________________________________ (10 pts)
MAGS_________________________________ (10 pts)
STROBE_______________________________ (10 pts)
LIGHTS________________________________ (10 pts)
15) Press "P" to continue the simulation
"Good-bye San Jose! Now we know that a course of 260 degrees will bring us to the coastline that we planned for, so go ahead and adjust your 45 degree departure routing now. At night, you can't use landmarks so readily to tell whether you're drifting or not, so make use of the Number 1 VOR there, and keep the needle centered since ‘260’ is dialed in the window. "
1) Turn to a heading of "260" degrees, and continue climb to "4500" feet
1) Begin to level off when the altimeter reads "4400" feet
2) Maintain "4500" feet
3) Reduce power to about "2200"  RPM
"Watch for the coast line, you'll see its definition with all these stars out. You will be passing the VOR you are tracking, by about five miles, before you reach the coast. So take that into consideration. "
1) When you are over the shore line, turn RIGHT to parallel the coast ("320" degree heading)
"Ah, the gentle, peaceful, scintillating, and cold Pacific! All your turns should be STANDARD RATE. You make this STANDARD RATE turn by keeping the wings on the little airplane displayed on the TURN COORDINATOR aligned with the "R" indicator."
2) When your heading indicator reads "310", start to roll out
3) After you have rolled out, press "P" to pause the simulation
** 4) Record your:
NAV 1 DME DIST___________________________(25 pts)
NAV 2 DME DIST___________________________(25 pts)
5) Press "P" to continue the simulation
"Now again, you can use the Number 2 VOR this time - remember, that's why we set it up when we pre-briefed this - to help you maintain the 320 course. You know, if I'm not mistaken, somewhere close by will be the aircraft carrier sort of sitting around! You don't get to see them much in Arizona where I come from - so I'm keen to see it!"
6) When you are abeam Half Moon Bay Airport, descend to "3000" feet
"Yeah, that airport is right on the 39 DME fix from Point Reyes VOR, which is what we have our Number 2 VOR set to. Hey! There's the carrier heading for the Golden Gate Bridge! Fly over that thing! We might fly into some heavy flak, but this is an armored 182 RG! I'm not kidding! Go and fly over it - maybe they'll let us land!"
7) When you are over the aircraft carrier, turn RIGHT towards the Golden Gate Bridge
8) Descend to "2000" feet
9) Tune your NAV 1 to "111.9" and set DME to "NAV 1" and "DIST"
10) Set the NAV I OBS to "114" in the upper window
"Fly right over that Golden Gate Bridge! WOW!!! Have you ever seen such a gorgeous sight? It reminds me again of how non pilots would be sad if they ever really knew what they were missing. Well, we aren't missing it!!! Back to business! Let's get ATIS for Oakland International on 128.5, and though we'll come in visual for a straight in, I'll show you how this is, in actuality, a localizer approach to runway 11!"
11) Tune COM to "128.5" (Oakland International ATIS)
"OAKLAND INTERNATIONAL, INFORMATION ECHO, 0415 ZULU WEATHER, SKY CLEAR, VISIBILITY 20, TEMPERATURE 70, WINDS 130 AT 6, ALTIMETER 30.03. RUNWAY 11 IS THE PRIMARY DEPARTURE AND ARRIVAL RUNWAY. ALL ARRIVING VFR TRAFFIC CONTACT TOWER ON 127.2, ALL ARRIVING IFR TRAFFIC CONTACT BAY APPROACH ON 120.9. ADVISE ON INITIAL CONTACT YOU HAVE INFORMATION ECHO."
12) Set ALTIMETER, set DG, and check FUEL
13) Fly over Alcatraz, and turn RIGHT to fly over the Oakland Bay Bridge
"Here's what I'd like you to do. We are VFR, but I'd like to show you, and have you fly a practice localizer approach into Oakland's runway 11 ! I'll walk you through it. Let's switch to Bay Approach on 120.9 and find out if they'll let us shoot a practice ILS (Instrument Landing System) approach to runway 11 - and they can monitor us for a while. They'll tell us when to go to Tower frequency. So go ahead and give them a call. "
14) Tune COM to "120.9" (Oakland Bay Approach)
"OAKLAND BAY APPROACH, THIS IS CESSNA 13MIKE, NORTHWEST OF OAKLAND INTERNATIONAL AT 2000 FEET. I'D LIKE TO REQUEST A PRACTICE ILS APPROACH TO RUNWAY 11, OAKLAND INTERNATIONAL WITH A HANDOFF TO TOWER. I AM VFR."
"CESSNA 13MIKE, SQUAWK 4451 AND IDENT."
"13MIKE, SQUAWKING 4451 AND IDENTING."
15) Set XPDR to "4451" (assigned code)
"13MIKE, RADAR CONTACT 10 MILES NORTHWEST OF THE FIELD, YOU ARE CLEARED FOR A PRACTICE ILS APPROACH RUNWAY 11 INTO OAKLAND INT'L. REMAIN ON THIS FREQUENCY UNTIL FURTHER NOTICE. STATE YOUR INTENTIONS."
"13MIKE WOULD LIKE TO TERMINATE THIS APPROACH WITH A FULL STOP LANDING. HAVE INFORMATION ECHO."
"13MIKE, APPROVED AS REQUESTED. INTERCEPT THE LOCALIZER FROM YOUR PRESENT POSITION AND COMMENCE APPROACH."
Figure 10.3. Straight in localizer approach for runway 11.
"Nice job! What's happening now is that we will come in on the localizes course, a heading of 114 degrees, which see - it's straight in to Oakland International! Remember how we set up the Number 1 CDI needle? Being centered tells you that you are flying right down the final approach track. So watch how this looks visually, but I wanted to give you a taste of an instrument approach procedure, even though we are going about it very unorthodoxically! (How do you like that made up word, huh?)
1) When you are over the Oakland Bay Bridge, set CARB HEAT "ON" and reduce power to about "1600"  RPM
2) Maintain a "500" feet per minute descent on the VSI
"If you were actually flying the ILS approach as an instrument pilot, the horizontal needle on your Number 1 VOR, should be centered straight across. That tells you that you are on the glideslope of this specific approach. I'm not interested in you taking heed to that. Continue to search for the picture of the approach end of the runway on that special position of your windscreen, and come on down by way of visual cues. But that horizontal glideslope needle won't be far from center if we're on that nice 3 degree glideslope anyway!"
3) When the NAV 1 DME DIST reads "5.0", reduce power to about "1400"  RPM
"Shoot for a "500" feet per minute rate of descent on the VSI from this point in. See those traveling lights in front of you? Those are what's called the approach lights for this specific ILS approach, otherwise known as rabbits. Use those to help align yourself to the runway."
4) Press "P" to pause the simulation
** 5) Record your:
CARB HEAT________________________________(10 pts)
6) Press "P" to continue the simulation
7) When the NAV 1 DME DIST reads "4.0", select GEAR "DOWN"
"CESSNA 13MIKE, WE HAVE YOU FOUR MILES FROM THE RUNWAY, SWITCH TO TOWER ON 127.2. SQUAWK 1200. THEY KNOW YOU'RE COMING IN. GOOD NIGHT."
"OAKLAND BAY APPROACH, 13MIKE. THANK YOU FOR ALLOWING US IN. SWITCHING 127.2, SQUAWKING 1200."
8) Tune COM to "127.2" (Oakland International South Tower)
9) Set XPDR to "1200" (VFR code)
"OAKLAND TOWER, THIS IS CESSNA 13MIKE ON A FOUR MILE FINAL INBOUND FOR A FULL STOP. I HAVE INFORMATION ECHO."
"CESSNA 13MIKE, HAVE YOU IN SIGHT. YOU ARE CLEARED FOR A FULL STOP RUNWAY 11."
10) When you have slowed to 90 knots set FLAPS to first notch
"WOW!! Do you even need me here with you? This is spectacular!!! You're nailed down solidly on that 500 feet per minute rate of descent, and you're very wonderfully adjusting your height with power, and your airspeed with pitch. I should have brought my video camera and taped this for you, just so that you can show it off to your friends! Well, keep it going - man, this is incredible!"
11) When the NAV 1 DME DIST reads "3.0", set FLAPS to "20" degrees
12) When the NAV 1 DME DIST reads "2.0", set FLAPS to "30" degrees
13) Press "P" to pause the simulation
** 14) Record your:
CARB HEAT___________________________________(10 pts)
15) Press "P" to continue the simulation
"You should be lined up with runway 11, just by following those rabbit lights, but you've got the runway centerline lights and the whole works now! Make slight heading adjustments to compensate for winds, overshoots, or undershoots. And when I say 'slight', I mean real slight!"
16) Airspeed should be 70 knots
"Oh, so pretty! I don't think I could fly this as nicely as you are! You're an inspiration! Remember - height with power and airspeed with pitch."
17) When the altimeter displays "200" feet, press "P" to pause the simulation
** 18) Record your:
19) Press "P" to continue the simulation
20) When you are 10 to 20 feet off the runway, reduce power to about "1000" RPM and start to slowly pitch the nose of the aircraft up to slow your descent and establish a touchdown attitude
"Now this airplane has an intense personality! If your airspeed drops below 60 knots, this holographic gloved hand lunges outward from the airspeed indicator and throttles you violently until you correct your airspeed! At night, that can be pretty scary because your first indication will be some unusual pressure on your larynx!!!" Get the point?"
21) When you are five feet off the runway, hold the nose of the aircraft up and allow the airspeed to SLOWLY bleed off. Your aircraft will settle onto the runway while you follow the centerline
"That's it! Be gentle - wear your ballet shoes! Smooth coordination of throttle and nose. Don't be impatient, let the aircraft settle onto the runway slowly."
22) After touchdown, reduce power to 600 RPM
23) Apply the brakes
24) Turn left and taxi off the active runway
25) When the aircraft has stopped, set CARB HEAT to "OFF"
26) Set FLAPS to "0"
"What an exciting flight! All I can say is keep up the good work, and I really will consider it a privilege to ever have you as a student for any other flight! You seem to have the big picture, and believe me this will inspire you to also want to continue working with your instruments. Go ahead and switch to Ground on 121.75, get our taxi clearance and close our VFR flight plan."
27) Tune COM to "121.75" (Oakland International South Ground)
"OAKLAND GROUND, CESSNA 13MIKE IS DOWN AND CLEAR OF RUNWAY 11 FOR TAXI TO THE TERMINAL. PLEASE CLOSE MY VFR FLIGHT PLAN."
"13MIKE, YOUR FLIGHT PLAN IS CLOSED, TAXI TO THE TERMINAL."
** 28) Record the TIME__________(5 pts)
TOTAL POINTS POSSIBLE FOR THIS FLIGHT 675